Cat Management in Communities
 
Welcome to the world's only webpage committed
to Community Cat Management! or
Management of Community Cats!
~ since 2004

2014 Community cats presentations

2013 and previous:Keeping Cats Out of Shelters - Feline Shelter Intake Reduction

Community Cat Management
Cat Lifestyles/Definitions
Cat Laws, Cat Codes, Cat Ordinances /
Cat Regulation / Cat Legislation

Find your animal codes, animal laws, animal ordinances
Cat Licensing :: Pet Limits / Cat Limits :: Feeding Bans :: Enforce EXISTING Laws :: Cat Hoarding
Spay/Neuter Model Programs
Trap-Neuter-RETURN-Manage (TNRM) :: Feral Cat Management
Feral Cat Laws :: Feral Cat Legal :: Feral Cat Regulation ::
Trap Neuter Return Ordinances (TNR Ordinances) :: Feral Cat Ordinances ::
Trap Neuter Return and Wildlife :: Feral Cats and Wildlife ::
Feral Cat Policy :: Trap Neuter Return Policy

Feral Cats in the News ~ the Feral Cat Blog!
Training and Events for Cat Advocacy, Cat Management,
Trap-Neuter-Return-Manage, and Spay/Neuter

Oregon Cat Management :: Oregon Feral Cat Groups :: Oregon Trap-Neuter-Return Groups :: Neuter/Spay Oregon - an Oregon statewide directory of spay/neuter assistance and information

Community Cat Management

A prevention AND solution action for cities, counties, communities
is to immediately implement or support comprehensive
cat management programs that promote CONCURRENTLY:
* spay neuter, identification, and containment as possible or supervision for 'owned' cats and
* Trap-Neuter-RETURN-Manage (TNRM) for unowned cats.
* covered dumpsters and garbage containers



Book: "Save Our Strays: How We Can End Pet Overpopulation and Stop Killing Healthy Cats and Dogs"
by Bob Christiansen, 1998, 100 pages.
A comprehensive blueprint for community homeless animal management. Nineteen factors or programs that save animal lives.
[January 2005 -- now available online as a downloadable pdf file!]

Table of Contents

Introduction
Origins of Animal Control and the Humane Movement
Current Surplus Pet Situation
The Right to Live, by Bernard E. Rollin, Ph.D
The Dynamics of Surplus Cats
The Dynamics of Surplus Dogs

Factors that Save Animal Lives:
* Effective leadership
* Effective community organization and program coordination
* Organizing
a community coalition
* Proper data collection, scientific assessment of information, strategic planning and coordinated action based on findings
* Comprehensive, community spay/neuter programs
* Permanent identification programs
* Programs to deal with the uncontrolled reproduction of feral cats
* Responsibility and commitment by owners
* Balance of supply versus demand
* High-volume shelter adoption programs
* Curtail amateur and backyard dog breeding
* Programs to care for sick and injured animals
* Programs to detect owners who are uneducated or who are experiencing problems and to intervene with appropriate education
* Full support from the veterinarian community
The Veterinarian’s Role, Bernard B. Rollin, Ph.D
* Educational programs to define the problem, prioritize resources and initiate solutions that change owner behaviors
* Animal legislation on which all organizations can agree
* Increase the supply of rental apartments and condominium housing where pets are allowed
* Better program accountability
* Shelters designed for group housing of dogs and cat colonies to decrease animal stress
* Productive economics

Conclusion
References
Appendix: Computing your regional statistics

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Articles in the online Save Our Strays Library
http://www.saveourstrays.com/ [under reconstruction]


Book: "Animal Control Management: A Guide for Local Governments"
International City/County Management Association (ICMA), by Geoffrey Handy of the HSUS, 2001, Item # 43008, 107 pages.
https://gateway.hsus.org/asopubs/ItemDetail.cfm?itemID=1004&Audience=1
This book "provides a wealth of practical information about funding, structuring, and running an effective animal care and control program that protects both citizens and animals. Created primarily for city and county managers and legislators, the book is also a great resource for humane advocates interested in selling proven concepts in animal care and control to those officials."


Book: "Community Approaches to Feral Cats: Problems, Alternatives and Recommendations"
by Margaret R. Slater, 2002, Humane Society of the US (HSUS)
Downloadable pdf file at:
https://gateway.hsus.org/asopubs/ItemDetail.cfm?itemID=1002&Audience=1&CFID=3986613&CFTOKEN=74845477

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

"The Need for Cat Management"
by Bob Christiansen of Atlanta Animal Alliance and Project CatSnip, 2003, page 23.
Downloadable pdf file at www.atlantaanimalalliance.com/MP.pdf
[The document text is shared below.]


The NEED for CAT MANAGEMENT in Counties


Goals of Cat Management Plans for Counties:
* Decrease the number of homeless cats
* Promote responsible cat guardianship
* Protect the welfare of cats
* Address the problem of outdoor unowned, feral and free roaming cats
* Protect the community from cat related nuisance or health risks
* Develop humane cat management and cat protection ordinances

Defining groups of cats

While it is true that all cats in counties are of the same species, Felis catus, and can of course interbreed, they occupy a range of habitats and have very different lifestyles. In order to study this range, scientists have grouped cats into three different categories according to where and how they live (their ecology):

* Domestic cats live entirely with humans, and could also be described as “pet” cats.
* Stray/unowned and free roaming cats have many of their needs indirectly supplied by humans. Stray cats live in shelter provided by human habitation (e.g. Industrial sites or farm sheds), and may acquire much of their food by scavenging (e.g. rubbish tip sites, feeding by residents). The population of stray cats is partly controlled by human provision of these resources. Stray cats are not necessarily domestic cats which have “strayed” (cats which are used to living in a home are likely to find themselves another family), but are probably born in the “wild”, and then live in and around human habitations. It is likely they interbreed with the domestic cat population.
* Feral cats are not socialized, cannot be touched and retreat from humans. They survive based on the laws of nature and available food sources.

Services Required for Cat Protection

* Spay-Neuter
For every human born there are 15 dogs born and 45 cats born. Spay-Neuter is the solution to cat overpopulation.
* Registration and identification service including central lost and found
* Assisting owners who have lost cats
* Facilities for impounding cats with suitable areas that are clean and sanitary for adoption
* Operational services for trapping and sterilizing cats
* Humane educational programs

Confine Cats at Night

Improved health and welfare for owned cats in counties:
Cats kept confined at night can live about THREE times longer than cats allowed to roam at will, as over 80% of car accidents and fights between cats occur at night.

Fewer community complaints regarding cat nuisance:
As cat calling, crying and fighting are most common at night, keeping cats confined helps prevent many instances of nuisance, and improve neighborly relations.

Less wildlife attacked and killed by cats:
Many native animals, especially nocturnal animals are vulnerable to cats that hunt during the night.

Group Name
Working To Manage and Protect Homeless Cats in (Your) County
For more information, e-mail


[Used and modified with permission from Bob Christiansen, president of Atlanta Animal Alliance and Project CatSnip, 2003 and author of the book "Save Our Strays: How We can End Pet Overpopulation and Killing of Healthy Dogs and Cats", 1998.]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~


The 2004 American Association of Feline Practitioners
Position Statement on Free-Roaming Abandoned and Feral Cats
http://catvets.com/professionals/guidelines/position/?Id=332
See also the December 2007 feral cat statement and the other AAFP cat related position statements

American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Endorses American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) Position Statement
http://www.aahanet.org/About_aaha/About_AAFP_posstmt.html


A Public Policy Toward the Management of Feral Cats
by Gorman and Levy in Pierce Law Review, VOLUME 2 - NUMBER 2, 2004
[downloadable PDF file] http://www.lawreview.piercelaw.edu/PLRarticles/vol2no2/GormanLevyCats.pdf

No Kill Advocacy Center (previously No Kill Solutions)- Nathan Winograd
http://www.nokilladvocacycenter.org
see in particular Feral articles under Reforming Animal Control including
Model Feral Cat Policy
TNR: An ACO's Guide

A Historical Perspective of Cat Welfare in the United States
http://tlconline.org/art/0017.html


Book: The Welfare of Cats
Rochlitz, Irene (Ed.), 2005
SpringerOnline.com
StevenSimpsonBooks.com


Cat Lifestyles/Definitions:

A well-known cat authority, Joan Miller, lists four categories (The Domestic Cat. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Assn, 1998):

[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"feral independent "wildlife" cats;
feral, interdependent free-roaming unowned cats;
domesticated, interdependent free-roaming loosely owned cats;
domesticated, owned household pets."

Bob Christiansen defines three cat groups above in The Need for Cat Management.

Alley Cat Allies (ACA) Touch Barrier
Adapted from Miller, Joan. The Domestic Cat: Perspective on the nature and diversity of cats. JAVMA, Vol 208, No. 4, February 15, 1996.
http://www.alleycat.org/resources.html
http://www.alleycat.org/pdf/touch.pdf

Margaret R. Slater's Definitions
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"A cat's lifestyle can be defined by four parameters: sociability spectrum, confinement status, ownership level and location description. The first three parameters vary across a spectrum of behavior."
(from "Community Approaches to Feral Cats: Problems, Alternatives and Recommendations"), Chapter 2. Definitions. 2.1 - 2.4, pages 7-9.

What is a feral cat? Definitions
by Susan Greene in The Problem of Feral Cat Management
http://www.americancat.net/feralproblem.html#definitions


Cat Laws / Cat Regulation / Cat Legislation
[Existing cat laws and potential cat legislation must be carefully considered.]

See also Trap-Neuter-RETURN > TNR and Ordinances, below.

Cat Advocacy
San Francisco SPCA, 2000
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"Pet limit laws, anti-feeding ordinances, feral cat "ownership" laws, cat colony registration, mandatory spay/neuter, cat licensing, cat confinement laws, and "nuisance" laws can—and have been—used to target cats and their caregivers."
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"But experience has proved that legislation is not the cure-all many have sought. In fact it can have the opposite effect. Study after study has shown that the primary reasons people fail to alter their pets are cost and lack of access to services in the pet owner's neighborhood or language. The same is true for licensing. The higher the cost, the lower compliance with the law is.
Because of this, lower-income pet owners, those who are ignorant of the law, and truly irresponsible people will not comply in significant numbers. And compassionate individuals who are caring for homeless animals are particularly threatened by ordinances like cat licensing. Punitive legislation will only discourage people from caring for homeless pets or drive disadvantaged pet owners "underground," making them even harder to reach and help."

How to help feral cats; are laws the answer?
Nathan Winograd, Declaring No Kill!, January 18, 2006
No More Homeless Pets Blogs
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
One final issue needs to be addressed. The claim by the Director that “more would be done for cats if cats brought in revenue by being licensed.” Do not believe it for a minute. Cat licensing is not a lifesaving measure. Cat licensing is a cat killer, no matter how it’s packaged. Even if it is sold as a “lost cat’s ticket home,” as a “revenue enhancer for animal control,” and as a way to force the public to be “more responsible pet owners.”
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
All the legislation in the world isn’t going to make a community No Kill. Even if a law is passed, enforcement will be elusive, complaint driven, used to target feral cat caretakers and other animal lovers, and will provide nothing more than a drain on scarce animal shelter dollars and a diversion from the business of saving lives.
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
But the reality is that to get to No Kill, a community does not need punitive laws. Instead, what is needed are the programs and services identified in the No Kill Declaration: ....."

Find your City and County Municipal Codes or Ordinances and State Laws, Statutes, Regulations
All animal groups, workers and volunteers should locate, review, and keep readily available their animal-related city and county municipal codes or ordinances, and state laws, regulations, statutes, or administrative rules. Some of the ways you can locate them are:
*Google.com or other search engine
Use search terms like: municipal codes city name state name
*One of the code websites (Municode > Online Library, Sterling Codifiers, Lexis-Nexis, General Code, MRSC, American Legal Publishing) or law websites Animal Legal and Historical Center (AnimalLaw.info) - select by state at left; noting the statute numbers, you can then easily find your complete state codes on your state website or Findlaw.com - by jurisdiction then codes.
*The state, city and county official websites, the latter two often found in this format (where st = the two-letter state abbreviation):
www.ci.cityname.st.us
www.co.countyname.st.us
Sometimes city or county animal control websites provide selected or summarized codes, ordinances or laws; they are often incomplete so locate the source. Some codes are not available online, then ask your city and county clerks.
Once you locate the codes or laws, scroll down, use search function, or your browser's edit/find. Look for the relevant Titles and Chapters using these keywords:
State: animals, animal control, dogs, cats, domestic animals; departments of agriculture or health; criminal, crimes, offenses; municipal codes; department of natural resources; fish, game, wildlife.
City and County: animals, animal control, dogs, cats, domestic animals; health and safety, police, nuisances, business and license.
Once you locate your codes, you may then want to check with your local animal control to become aware of what their INTERPRETATION is!

June 2005: new topic on Animal Legal and Historical Center (AnimalLaw.info)
Cat Laws
* State Cat Laws
* Detailed Discussion of State Cat Laws

September 2006: new topic on Animal Legal and Historical Center (AnimalLaw.info)
Feral Cats
Includes:
Brief Biological Overview of the Domestic Cat
Quick Overview of Feral Cat Population Control
Overview of Feral Cat Population Control
Detailed Discussion of Feral Cat Population Control

Guide to Cat Law: A Guide for Legislators and Humane Advocates
Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), 2003
http://files.hsus.org/web-files/PDF/Safe_Cats_guide_cat_laws.pdf
A component of the HSUS's Safe Cats campaign
http://www.hsus.org/ace/13960

[Remember, existing cat laws and potential cat legislation must be carefully considered.]

Types of Cat Laws:
* Mandatory Registration (Licensing)
* Cat Limitation (Restriction on Number per household)
* Mandatory Identification
* Mandatory Rabies Vaccination
* Mandatory Spaying & Neutering of Adopted Cats
* Spaying and Neutering of Outdoor Cats
* Mandatory Minimum Shelter Stray Holding Period
* Cat Control (safely confined by house or owner supervision) and
Cat Restraint (leash, harness or similar device)
* Feral Cat Caretaker Registration Programs
* Enforcement

Cat Registration or Licensing:

[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"The lesson should be obvious: just fix the animals. Never mind the licensing laws."
Self Defeat in Los Angeles, May 2000
http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/editorialMay5.00.html

Against Mandatory Cat Licensing
Position Statement of the San Francisco SPCA, 1995
http://www.sfspca.org/gifs/pdf_feralcats/license.pdf

CAT LICENSING
A Clear and Present Danger
Bob Christiansen, Save Our Strays, 2001
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"If cat licensing is fully implemented and enforced it will result in more cats being impounded in shelters. The cats that have identification, are impounded and returned to owners will not offset increases in cats that are impounded, not claimed and consequently, euthanized. Cat legislation results in campaigns targeting unowned, feral and free roaming cats. Mandatory cat licensing will inadvertently kill beloved household cats and increase the killing of unowned feral cats. Although billed as an animal protection program, cat licensing will have an adverse effect on cats and have very little impact on the surplus cat problem."

Cat Licensing
Another Perspective
By Ed Boks (then Director Maricopa County Animal Control Services)
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"If a state law required a cat vaccination program it would be difficult to enforce and complicated by the fact that there are so many feral cats in our communities that would never be vaccinated. It seems to me that before such a program is mandated and implemented we should know if it would actually work. To date, no one has performed a controlled study or a time trend analysis to study whether cat vaccine requirements work. It may be that they do and it may be that they do not. We just don’t know.
Do I favor rabies vaccination of cats? Absolutely. Every responsible cat owner should have their cat vaccinated. (And they should keep it indoors and have it neutered too.) However, (revenue generator that it may be), I am chagrinned to admit I see no scientific reason at this time for an Arizona State mandate requiring rabies vaccination of cats, as I clearly do for dogs."

AGAINST CAT-LICENCING
by Richard Avanzino & Pam Rockwell
(From ANIMAL PEOPLE, April 1995.)

Pet Limit Laws:

"Pet Limit Laws: Closing the Door to Loving Homes", SF SPCA, 2000.
www.sfspca.org/advocacy/pdf/pdf_catrights/pet_limits.pdf

"Cat Advocacy", San Francisco SPCA, 2000
www.sfspca.org/gifs/pdf_factsheets/advocacy.pdf

"Pet Limitation Laws", Merritt Clifton, Editor of Animal People News, 2001.
This article is not on the Animal People News website. It was previously hosted on the Save Our Strays and 21st Century Cares websites but is not currently available.

Pet limit laws have been defeated (and even reversed) in over one thousand cities and counties, and three states.
Cat Fanciers Association, 2001.
http://www.cfainc.org/ezine/archives/legis-review01.html

Commonwealth v. Creighton 639 A.2d 1296 (Pa.Cmwlth.,1994)
http://www.animallaw.info/cases/topiccases/catozoning.htm
In this Pennsylvania case, a cat owner challenged a local ordinance that limited the number of cats she could own at her residence (she owned 25 cats that were rescued "mousers" from factories; the ordinance limited ownership to 5).

Commonwealth Court, No. 551 C.D. 1993
639 A.2d 1296 (Pa.Cmwlth.,1994)

Detailed Discussion of Local Laws Restricting the Number of Pets
Ordinances for Pet Number Restrictions
Publish Date: 2004
http://www.animallaw.info/articles/ddusdognumberordinances.htm
Animal Legal and Historical Center
Michigan State University College of Law
http://www.animallaw.info/

Cat Fanciers Association (CFA)
Pet Number Limit Laws, 2005
Who is Impacted and Why These Laws are Detrimental

Pet Limit Laws, 2007 - No Kill Advocacy Center (Nathan Winograd)
click on Reforming Animal Control, scroll down to Pet Limit Laws downloadable pdf file

Enforce EXISTING Animal Cruelty, Abandonment, Nuisance and Health Laws; Treat Hoarders

City/county council requests or proposals for pet limit laws are often based upon complaints about just one or a few households with multiple cats. Neighborhood cat issues can be addressed in many different ways with existing nuisance or health laws, with enforcement of and prosecution under existing animal cruelty and abandonment laws; with minimum care standards (which presently need elevating).
[Excerpt - letter from Barb to the Albany, Oregon City Council, October 2003.]

Hoarders or Collectors

Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium (HARC) website, including Intervention information
www.tufts.edu/vet/cfa/hoarding/index.html

Why punish natural animal behaviors?

"A humane person or sustainable society will not support that cats or animals be killed because they "offend" or because of their owner's irresponsible behavior. Some city council proposals "would allow for fines to be levied against owners and offending cats to be ordered euthanized." If an animal of any kind is "offending", it is due to human ignorance or irresponsible pet guardians. So-called offending behaviors of animals (actually their natural behaviors) can be moderated in many ways without KILLING them."
[Excerpt - letter from Barb to the Albany, Oregon City Council, October 2003.]

Incentives, not Citations:
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
"The best way to work with the community to promote caring, compassion and responsible pet care is to help people do the right thing. That's why it is imperative that humane societies and rescue groups focus on incentives, not citations."
"The costs of passing coercive, punitive mandates are high."
"Compassion is the Way" (downloadable pdf file)
http://www.bestfriends.org/nomorehomelesspets/pdf/feralcatcompassion.pdf
by Nathan Winograd [left Tompkins County SPCA NY in August 2004. He has since founded No Kill Solutions based in San Diego.]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Regulation of Cats
Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington (state)
http://www.mrsc.org/subjects/pubsafe/animal/cats.aspx

Recreation > Pets > Cats > Issues > Legislation
http://directory.google.com/Top/Recreation/Pets/Cats/Issues/Legislation

The Domestic Cat and the Law: A Guide to Available Resources
http://www.llrx.com/features/catlaw.htm

Cats and the law - The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
http://www.rspb.org.uk/advice/gardening/unwantedvisitors/cats/catsandthelaw.aspx

A Very Brief History of Cats and the Law
messybeast.com/retro-legal.htm


Spay/Neuter Model Programs

No More Homeless Pets (NMHP) Resources Page (a program of Best Friends Animal Society) [Scroll down to Spay/Neuter]

ASPCA Professional (previously Imagine Humane - see below)
September 2007: ASPCA Pro is a reformat of Imagine Humane content with some new additions. (Imagine Humane was created just a few years ago and was a reformat in part of materials originally posted on the Resources webpages of Best Friends / No More Homeless Pets; a Best Friends employee moved to ASPCA.)
See materials on Spay/Neuter and Feral Cats.
Old: imagine Humane!, a project of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and PETsMART Charities.
> Innovation Bank > Spay/Neuter
Features model spay/neuter programs including Humane Alliance, a high-volume spay/neuter clinic with a transport component. Recently Humane Alliance started mentoring other groups and began the National Spay/Neuter Response Team. The NSNRT mission is to train organizations to open and operate strategically placed high-volume, high-quality, targeted, affordable, spay/neuter clinics across the nation.

And of course, see Trap-Neuter-RETURN (TNR) below!


Trap-Neuter-RETURN (TNR)

Alley Cat Allies (ACA)

"Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) is a full management plan in which stray and feral cats already living outdoors in cities, towns, and rural areas are humanely trapped, then evaluated, vaccinated, and sterilized by veterinarians. Kittens and tame cats are adopted into good homes. Healthy adult cats too wild to be adopted are returned to their familiar habitat under the lifelong care of volunteers."

July 2008: ACA reformatted their website

Home > What We Do > Help People Help Cats > How to Conduct Trap-Neuter-Return

Home > What We Do > Help People Help Cats > How to Conduct Trap-Neuter-Return > Targeted Trapping


Feline Friendly Practices for Shelters



Build Trap-Neuter-Return Capacity


Neighborhood Cats -
April 2009 - website reformatted and updated!
Click on How to > Overview
Click on Resources > Overview for Advocacy, Education and other resources


* March 2007 book
Implementing a Community Trap-Neuter-Return Program
by Bryan Kortis (of Neighborhood Cats,) published by Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)
or go to AnimalSheltering.org and click on Publications at left.

The Neighborhood Cats TNR Kit is available through the ASPCA
HOW-TO-DO-IT MANUAL
INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEO
Free downloadable pdf documents:
* The Nuts & Bolts of Implementing a Community-Wide TNR Program
* Sample TNR Policy Presentation
* Sample TNR Workshop Outline

ASPCA Professional (previously Imagine Humane - see below)
September 2007: ASPCA Pro is a reformat of Imagine Humane content with some new additions. (Imagine Humane was created just a few years ago and was a reformat in part of materials originally posted on the Resources webpages of Best Friends / No More Homeless Pets; a Best Friends employee moved to ASPCA.)
See materials on Spay/Neuter and Feral Cats.
Old: imagine Humane! > Innovation Bank > Feral Cats

* Neighborhood Cats: Mass Trapping
Making the most of your efforts by targeting whole colonies

*
IndyFeral Cat Captain Program

Feral Cat Coalition (FCC) - San Diego California

No More Homeless Pets (NMHP) Resources Page (a program of Best Friends Animal Society)
[Scroll down to Feral Cats]
Castaway Critters (formerly Stray Cat Alliance)
[Click at left on Feral Cat Resources or Spay/Neuter]

feral_cats forum - a national/global online forum that teaches nuts-and-bolts Trap-Neuter-Return.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

NYC Feral Cat Council - Recommended TNR Guidelines
[June 2004]
At its second meeting since its inception, the New York City Feral Cat Council, a project of the Mayor's Alliance for NYC's Animals, agreed by consensus on recommended guidelines for the practice of Trap-Neuter-Return. The guidelines, which will be expanded over time, currently cover recovery time, holding space, vaccinations, testing, eartipping, and the need for long-term colony care. They can be viewed in their entirety at the Council's site:
http://www.nycferalcat.org/guidelines.htm


The History of Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR)


Examining the "R" in TNR: Return vs. Release
from Bryan Kortis of Neighborhood Cats in NYC
"TNR is alternately referred to as "trap-neuter-return" or "trap-neuter-release ," with both phrases being fairly common. Neighborhood Cats believes the TNR community should collectively decide to make "return" the correct term. Unlike the word "release," saying the cats are "returned" provides a fuller explanation of what our work is about. The cats are not simply being released, but they're being put back in their own territory with their own colony mates.
While this may seem just like semantics to those active in the field, it is a linguistic distinction of extreme importance when the concept of TNR is first introduced to the public, especially through the media. "Return" focuses attention on the essential aspect of TNR, which is that the cats are maintained where they already are. They're not removed or relocated. There's also a subtle, but different emotional impact when the message is conveyed that the cats will be allowed to live where they were found, as opposed to simply being let go after altering. TNR has community activism as part of its method, so why not use language to our advantage in this respect?"


~ ~ ~ ~ ~

TNR and Ordinances
See also: Cat Laws, Cat Codes, Cat Ordinances / Cat Regulation / Cat Legislation, above.

Since 2002, ~Barb, AnimalResources has compiled, tracked and shared text of ordinances, laws and legislation nationwide regarding spay/neuter, cats, feral cats and Trap-Neuter-Return.

about April 20, 2009: Neighborhood Cats > Resources > Ordinances
Listing of some ordinances around the nation that allow Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR)

beginning in May 2008 and added to September 2008: Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) > Feral Cat Resources
TNR Ordinances
listing of some ordinances regarding feral cat and Trap-Neuter-Return

Alley Cat Allies, about fall 2007
General Ordinance Drafting Guidelines

From NMHP Forums

How to help feral cats; are laws the answer?
January 18, 2006 - Declaring No-Kill! Nathan Winograd / No Kill Advocacy
link no longer works, I have full text, here is excerpt:
"In short, animals in shelters are dying because people in shelters are killing them. If that is addressed, a community will be well on its way to No Kill. And your community will save a lot more cats without a single new law."

February 9 to 14, 2004
Topic: Animal Control: Exploring Collaborative Solutions
Don Jordan of Seattle Animal Control and Dave Flagler of Fulton County Animal Services in Atlanta, Georgia
Question: Cat ordinances and TNR Programs
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/020904aco.html#five

February 2 to 6, 2004
Topic: Feral cats: how can you get the word out and people on board?
Amy Santiago of Alley Cat Allies and Dr. Julie Levy of the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida
Question: What about anti-roaming ordinances that prohibit TNR?
http://www.bestfriends.com/archives/forums/020204feral.html#two

September 8 to 12, 2003
Topic: Ferals, ferals everywhere, and not sure what to do?
Nathan Winograd of Tompkins County SPCA
Question: Doing TNR when animal control enforces pet limit laws
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/ferals.html#two

[Just scroll down to this next one from the above until this link is corrected!]
Question: Cat licensing - Changing a city ordinance that promotes round up and kill
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/ferals.html#thee

Changing a city ordinance that promotes round up and kill
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/ferals.html#ten

April 14, 2003
Getting Political
Becky Robinson, national director of Alley Cat Allies,
Question: Doing TNR when there is restrictive legislation
Question: Should caretakers work to change laws or just focus on individual colonies?
Question: Is it best to work underground or ask permission to do TNR?
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/political.html#twelve

Liability for feral cats
http://www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/protect.html#four

Other

From Utah Pets:
I heard it was illegal to feed feral cats. Is this true?
http://www.utahpets.org/feralfixfaq.html

From Nathan Winograd of No Kill Solutions
No Kill E-News, Winter 2004
Ask No Kill Solutions
Question: Do state laws against animal abandonment make TNR programs illegal?”
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
The actions undertaken by feral cat caretakers do not meet the statutory definition of abandonment. In addition, abandonment presupposes an ownership or possessory interest in the cats which is not present in feral cat rescue programs. Moreover, public policy often supports TNR programs thus underscoring the lack of conflict between TNR programs and abandonment laws. And finally, the application of cruelty law abandonment provisions to a TNR program would appear to be unconstitutional.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~


How To Handle "Threats" Regarding Your Colony Caretaking:
http://www.floridacatnews.com/
Click on "Caretaking Threats at left


Feral Cat Caretakers Coalition
http://www.feralcatcaretakers.org/


The Problem of Feral Cat Management
The American Cat Project
http://www.americancat.net/feralproblem.html


Prime Directive on Trap-Neuter-Return [the 70% rule]
ANIMAL PEOPLE, March 2004
http://animalpeoplenews.org/IMPORTANT_MATS/tnr.html
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
1) At least 70% of the animals and preferably 100% must be sterilized. Before the 70% figure is reached, there will be no net reduction. ANIMAL PEOPLE made every effort to trap and sterilize 100% of the cats at each site as rapidly as they could be identified; and
2) Sites must be monitored on an ongoing basis to ensure that all newcomers are identified, caught, and sterilized.In addition, ANIMAL PEOPLE stipulates as fundamental humane considerations that all puppies and kittens who can be socialized for adoption should be; that no ill, elderly, or disabled animals should ever be released; and, as the Prime Directive for practicing TNR successfully without rousing politically problematic opposition, no animal should be released into or returned to hostile or otherwise unsuitable habitat.

Street Dog & Feral Cat Sterilization and Vaccination Efforts Must Get 70% or Flunk
http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/02/10/streetdog.feral1002.html
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
Sterilizing and vaccinating 70% of the street dog or feral cat population in any given locale is the minimum standard for success, but there is no "gentleman's C" in grading this kind of test. Reach 70% and the effort earns an A for All's well, because then the odds that animals will meet who are capable of infecting or reproducing with each other drop to the vanishing point.

Roadkill Avoidance Tips from ANIMAL PEOPLE
http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/IMPORTANT_MATS/roadkillsTips.html
Compiled by Merritt Clifton, Editor in Chief
[Excerpt - always read the entire article.]
Cats > Cars kill about 5.4 million cats per year--more, by a million-plus, than are killed in U.S. animal shelters! Most of them are hit at night. Typically cats know cars are dangerous, but confuse the beams from your headlights with your car itself. When the lights go by them, they think it's safe to dash out. Expect them to make this mistake and you'll be prepared to react if they do.

Where Cats Belong and Where They Don't
By Merritt Clifton, ANIMAL PEOPLE, June 2003
http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/03/6/wherecatsBelong6.03.html

Trap Neuter Return and Wildlife

TNR +
New Guidelines for Feral Cat Colony Management Where There is a Positive Impact on Wildlife
http://www.tnr-plus.protectrwildlife.org/

Project Bay Cat Tool Kit for Humane Feral Cat Population Control
a collaborative effort between
City of Foster City, the Homeless Cat Network and Sequoia Audubon Society - California

2011: website currently offline
Burlington County Feral Cat Initiative in New Jersey
a collaborative effort between
American Bird Conservancy
Burlington County Feral Cat Initiative
Burlington County Health Department
Neighborhood Cats
New Jersey Animal Rights Alliance now Animal Protection League of New Jersey
New Jersey Audubon Society
New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife, Endangered and Non-game Species Program

New Jersey Feral cat & Wildlife Ordinance Protocols

Good for Cats, Good for Wildlife
Feral Cat Coalition of Oregon and Audubon Society of Portland

Animal Balance - Protecting ALL species
Galapagos Islands and Dominican Republic
"Animal Balance works with the local authorities to organize community-based sterilization programs for cats and dogs on islands and areas where the local ecology is fragile. By humanely reducing and controlling cat and dog populations
the community is healthier and the native species are protected, helping to conserve biodiversity in fragile ecosystems around the world."


~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Copyright 2001-2014. Researched and compiled by
~Barb, AnimalResources@aol.com
Animal Advocate/Volunteer
End Homeless Animals

Help End Animal Homelessness and Killing ~
Neuter/Spay and Keep Pets for Life!



Feral Cats in the News ~ the Feral Cat Blog!
Daily national and global cat news, information and resources to actively use for cat advocacy and cat management.

Neuter/Spay Information and Assistance ~ Oregon, Washington, Nationwide

Early (Pediatric) Spay/Neuter (also known as Juvenile Spay/Neuter or Pre-pubertal Sterilization)


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